Mead of poetry
In Norse mythology, the Poetic Mead or Mead of Poetry (Old Norse skáldskapar mjaðar), also known as Mead of Suttungr (Suttungmjaðar), is a mythical beverage that whoever “drinks becomes a skald or scholar” to recite any information and solve any question. This myth was reported by Snorri Sturluson (Skáldskaparmál 5) (1). The drink is a vivid metaphor for poetic inspiration, often associated with Odin the god of ‘possession’ via berserkerrage or poetic inspiration.
Creation of the mead of poetry and murder of Kvasir
After the Æsir-Vanir War, the gods sealed the truce they had just concluded by spitting in a vat. To keep a symbol of this truce, they created from their spittle a man named Kvasir. He was so wise that there were no questions he could not answer. He travelled around the world to give knowledge to mankind. One day, he visited the dwarves Fjalar and Galar. They killed him and poured his blood into two vats and a pot called Boðn, Són and Óðrerir. They mixed his blood with honey, thus creating a mead which made anybody who drank it a “poet or scholar” (“skáld eða frœðamaðr“). The dwarves explained to the gods that Kvasir had suffocated in intelligence.
From the dwarves to Suttungr
Theft by Odin
Odin met nine slaves who were scything hay and offered to sharpen their scythes. His whetstone worked so well that they all wanted to buy it. Odin threw it up in the air and the slaves struggled for it to death, cutting each other’s throats.
Then he spent the night at Baugi’s place. Baugi was Suttung’s brother. He complained that business did not go well since his slaves had killed each other and he could not get anybody to stand in for them. Odin, who said his name was Bölverk, proposed to do their work in exchange for a draught of Suttung’s mead. Baugi agreed, saying that he would try to persuade his brother. During summer, Bölverk did the work as agreed and, in winter, asked Baugi for his owing. They both went to Suttung’s, who refused to give a single drop of the beverage.
Bölverk then suggested Baugi use a trick. He gave him the drill Rati and asked him to dig into Hnitbjörg mountain. After Baugi tried to deceive him, a hole was actually dug and Bölverk slipped into it, having taken the form of a snake. Baugi tried in vain to hit him with the drill.
He arrived by Gunnlöd, with whom he spent three nights. Thus he could have three draughts of mead. But each emptied a container. He then transformed into an eagle and flew away. When Suttungr discovered the theft, he took the shape of an eagle and pursued Odin. When the Æsir saw him, they displaced containers in which he spat his loot out. But Suttung was so close to him that he let some drop backwards. Anybody could drink this part, which is known as the “rhymester’s share” (“skáldfífla hlutr“). But the mead of poetry Odin gave to the gods and to the men gifted in poetry.